Exposure of poultry processors to microbial agents in poultry abattoirs

REVIEW                                                                                                                                                  PEER REVIEWED


JL Harmse, JC Engelbrecht, JL Bekker

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa


Correspondence: JL Harmse, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. e-mail: harmsejl@tut.ac.za


Leon Harmse is a Southern African Institute for Occupational Hygiene (SAIOH) member.



Background: Poultry processors are exposed to occupational health hazards which include microbial hazards. Several micro-organisms find birds a favourable habitat and can affect poultry abattoir processing workers’ health during primary and secondary processing, including value-adding processes such as portioning and preparing ready meals.

Objective: This review addresses aspects of microbial hazards, such as the occurrence, exposure, effects and related diseases, as well as applicable legislation. It includes a non-exhaustive overview of research relating to the effect of microbial agents on the occupational health of poultry processors, excluding the effects of poultry dust and viral carcinogenic exposures. The review is intended for use by researchers, occupational health specialists, and the poultry industry, to indicate the extent of microbial exposure and to illustrate the need for instituting and managing applicable controls, thereby providing a healthy work environment.

Methods: A search of PubMed, MEDLINE and Science Direct online databases was conducted, using specific keywords.

Results: Even though microbial agents have an affinity for certain processing areas, they can occur in other areas. The review highlights that microbial agents cause various health effects and diseases, including infections, diarrhoea, warts, skin irritation and allergies, occupational asthma, reduced lung capacity and respiratory irritation.

Conclusion: Several pathogenic microbial agents present in poultry abattoirs can affect the health of poultry processors. Employers, in terms of the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1993, need to institute antimicrobial measures to provide a healthy work environment. We recommend control and management measures which include legal compliance, housekeeping and hygiene aspects to protect employers and workers.


Keywords: poultry processing, microbial agents, microbial exposure, poultry processing health effects



Demand for poultry meat continues to increase, and the United Nations (UN) estimates a 1.6% growth in the industry, globally, to an annual production of approximately 109 million tonnes of meat.1 Worldwide, the poultry industry is a major contributor to the gross domestic product (GDP).2 In South Africa (SA), the poultry industry is the largest individual agricultural sector, contributing 15% to the GDP in 2016.3

Hazardous biological agents (HBAs) in poultry abattoirs include parasites, viruses, bacteria and fungi, as well as by-products of microorganisms, such as endotoxins. Transmission may be via inhalation, direct contact, contact with body fluids, and/or vehicular transmission, such as water and food, or by vectors.4 Worker injuries, cuts or poultry bone splinters can compromise the skin, allowing microbial entry during slaughtering and handling of carcasses and meat.5 Workers are also exposed to bird faeces that contain microorganisms, during receiving, shackling and stunning of birds.6 Increased profit and production demands lead to an increase in line speeds, which may contribute to increasing prevalence of microbial-related exposure and hence health effects.7,8 During production there is a dual concern: the workers might contaminate the product, and they might contract a microbial-related disease from the birds.6,9 Disease agents, hosts and the environment comprise an ecosystem that is in a dynamic balance. When occupational exposure occurs, disease agents impact on the health of the host and disturb this balance, resulting in an occupational disease. Compromised immunity, diet, and other personal factors may contribute to the imbalance.10,11 Exposure may cause infections, e.g. dermatitis, rhinitis, pneumonitis, bronchitis, diarrhoea; respiratory effects, e.g. respiratory irritation, reduced lung function, asthma, lesions; neurological symptoms; and antibody formation.12

Similar to categorisation in the United Kingdom (UK), the SA Hazardous Biological Agents Regulations classifies HBAs into four categories, according to their disease-causing abilities, the disease severity in humans, and the availability of treatment protocols. Most poultry-related HBAs are classified as containment category 2, indicating that the organism may cause disease, that effective prophylaxis and treatment are available, and that community spread is unlikely. Only Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycobacterium avium complex and the West Nile virus are classified as containment category 3, which means the organism may cause severe disease, effective prophylaxis and treatment are available, and there is a risk of community spread.13,14

The inter-governmental World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE) provides standards on animal health and zoonoses for international trade by publishing a list of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases, annually, that includes avian diseases caused by Salmonella spp., Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus.15,16 The International Labour Organization (ILO) and SA state that the onus rests on the employer to provide a healthy workplace.14,17,18  Worldwide, approximately                     

2.3 million occupational deaths occur annually, of which 2 million are attributed to occupational disease.19 The burden of disease induced by zoonotic pathogens affects thousands annually, leading to chronic infections and causing significant economic, medical and livestock-related losses.20

Mortality in poultry slaughtering and processing workers due to microbial disease, and deaths involving cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems have been observed, illustrating that workers may be at increased risk of mortality from certain microbial diseases and infections.21,22 In countries where enteric infections, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, malaria, measles and tuberculosis are endemic, the disease risk is escalated and further aggravated by poor socio-economic conditions or compromised immune systems.23,24

The purpose of this review is to present the extensive role that poultry abattoir processing plays in the development of ill health amongst workers exposed to pathogenic microorganisms. In order to achieve this objective, the review addresses aspects of poultry meat production, occupational impacts and diseases, applicable legislation, and the management of microbial risk. Emphasis is placed on primary processing which includes receiving, shackling, stunning, bleeding, scalding, de-feathering, evisceration and recovery, as well as secondary processing such as portioning, brining, filleting, chilling, freezing, packaging and dispatching. Poultry dust exposures and oncogenic viral exposures are excluded. Although auxiliary activities at poultry processing plants, such as laboratories, water and sewerage treatment plants, boiler plants, laundries, rendering plants, and solid waste disposal plants might result in worker exposure to microbial agents, they are not included in this review.



Information sources and literature search

The online bibliographic databases, PubMed, MEDLINE and Science Direct, were searched for studies published in English, from 1999 to 2015, relating to microbial agents’ prevalence, exposures and health impacts on poultry abattoir processing workers in primary and secondary processing. Bibliographic lists and references from the selected papers and reviews were used as leads for identification of additional studies. The search was conducted using the following terms: microbial agents in poultry processing, prevalence of microbial agents in poultry processing, zoonosis in poultry processing, fungal exposures in poultry processing, poultry diseases, ectoparasites in poultry processing, bacterial resistance, as well as several specific poultry processing microbial disease keywords. The search included grey literature from websites of recognised institutes, corporations, international agencies and international and national governmental agencies and departments, using the following keywords: occupational health legislation, poultry abattoir processing worker health, occupational disease statistics, management of occupational hazards, and management of microbial agents. Examples of these organisations include the International LabourOrganization (ILO),25 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE),26 the Department of Labour (DoL),27 the United Nations (UN),28 the South African Poultry Association (SAPA)29 and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).30 Sources were managed using EndNote reference manager.


Study selection

Studies were included in the review if they explicitly reported on microbial agent prevalence, exposures and/or health impacts (symptoms and disease) on poultry abattoir processing workers in primary or secondary processing.

This article forms part of a broader study and has been approved by the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) Ethics Committee (reference number REC2012/08/005).



The literature search provided findings related to microbial agents’ prevalence, exposures and health impacts in the entire poultry production process, ranging from the rearing of chicks, to the growing of birds and the slaughter and production of poultry meat in abattoirs. Information obtained from the 51 sources that fulfilled the inclusion criteria is summarised in tables reflecting the country, study design, target population, health effects prevalence, and health impacts.

No poultry production area is free of microbial agents.31,32 Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, ecto- and other parasites occur throughout poultry abattoirs, from bird reception until meat is chilled and packed. The type and level of microbial agents present depend on the production rate and activities performed. For example, live handling, and evisceration or cutting, have different associated pathogenic microbial agents. Some pathogenic microorganisms occur throughout the abattoir, but at differing levels.31,33


Exposure to pathogenic bacteria

Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of pathogenic bacteria in poultry abattoirs and indicates the detail and origin of the study, the microbial agents that are present and potential health effects. Although all production areas show levels of microbial agents above the human infectious dose, the receiving, shackling and killing areas have the highest counts for Pseudomonas spp., Listeria spp., Salmonella spp. and Bacillus spp.33 Poultry abattoir workers are exposed to gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, as well as gram negative bacteria, such as Salmonella spp., with some studies indicating Staphylococcus spp. as being most prevalent throughout the production area.34,35 Bird faeces were identified as the major source of airborne gram negative bacteria and endotoxins.31,32 The average mesophilic bacterial counts in processing are up to 
8 000 times higher than the background concentrations in residential areas.31 Infection from some microbes, e.g. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., may cause diarrhoea in workers, whereas others, such as M. avium, Chlamydia spp. and Staphylococcal spp., cause respiratory related problems.36-39

Poultry workers showed an elevated risk of developing neurological symptoms, as well as an increase in ganglioside antibodies which, amongst others, can be associated with exposure to Campylobacter spp. Skin-related conditions and skin infections occurred in workers due to Staphylococcus aureus.40-42 Factors such as the type of organism, its virulence, environmental conditions, and worker susceptibility, also play a role in disease development. Microbial agents, such as mesophilic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, B. cereus, coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae spp., Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Sagenomella sclerotialis occur throughout several production areas.43-48

Of concern is microbial drug resistance, originating from overuse of antibiotics in humans as well as in agriculture, including poultry production.49 It is estimated that 11.2 million kg of antibiotics are administered to livestock, compared to 1.4 million kg for human medical use in the US.50 A high prevalence of resistant strains is

present in poultry abattoir workers.56 Resistance to several anti-

biotics was found for E. coli and Staphylococcus spp.51,52 A SA study found that Campylobacter jejuni antibiotic resistance in broilers was highest to tetracycline (98%), ceftriaxone (96%), ciprofloxacin (91%), gentamacin (98%), erythromycin (50%), clarithromycin (45%), ampicillin (68%), and nalidixic acid (64%).53 In the US, the number of quinolone-resistant infections acquired increased due to the acquisition of resistant strains from poultry. The use of fluoroquinolones in poultry since 1995 has created a reservoir of resistant C. jejuni.54 Multi-resistance was detected in 23% of the broiler isolates.53 Microbial antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains and in poultry abattoir workers was also detected.52,55 Increase in resistance to various antibiotics was observed in L. monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains after exposure to concentrations of decontaminant chemicals (trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, chlorine dioxide or peroxyacetic acid). This raises concerns over the application of certain poultry decontaminants since they could contribute to the development of microbial resistance.56



Exposure to viruses 

Table 2 provides a non-exhaustive list of viruses in poultry abattoirs and indicates the detail and origin of the study, microbial agent, area present and the level of organism(s) in general, or specifically, that may affect workers. Avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus and Papilloma virus are zoonotic disease agents that can be transmitted from infected birds to humans; outbreaks have been reported in China, Hong Kong, India, Vietnam, Europe and SA.57, 58 Newcastle disease virus is a highly contagious but mild disease that causes conjunctivitis and mild flu-like symptoms in humans.59 Avian influenza (AI) conversely, may be transmitted to humans, causing flu-like symptoms, conjunctivitis and severe respiratory distress.60 Poultry workers have been infected with different strains of the AI virus. Outbreaks are associated with the culling of entire flocks.61-63



Exposure to protozoa, yeasts and moulds

Table 3 provides a non-exhaustive list of yeasts and moulds in poultry abattoirs and indicates the detail and origin of the study, microbial agent, area present and the level of organism(s) in general or specifically, which may affect workers. Fungi in poultry dust may originate from soil, feed and bedding matter, and from birds.92 Fungi, such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Chladosporium spp. and Histoplasma capsulatum, are airborne and are capable of causing respiratory disorders such as allergies, wheezing, asthma and decreased lung function.93-95 The mycotoxin AFB1, a recognised hepato-carcinogen, and possibly carcinogenic to the lungs, is produced by Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus flavus is present in significant levels in airborne samples.96 Mycotoxins are not inherently volatile but enter the respiratory system through inhalation when present in poultry dust.96-99 Also present in poultry dust is (1-3) β-D-glucan, a non-allergenic water insoluble cell wall component found in most fungi, some bacteria and plants; it may cause decreased lung function when inhaled.92,95,100,101 The protozoa, H. capsulatum, was found to cause an influenza/tuberculosis productive cough, weight loss, shortness of breath and the development of ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in poultry workers.102





There is no doubt that several microbial agents are present during poultry processing and the footprint may vary between processes in primary and secondary processing.

Biological risk at work requires a complex approach with regard to risk assessment and risk management, which is complicated by the wide variety of microbial agents, working environments and working techniques that play crucial roles in exposure.103 Poultry processing has unique features that make control of microbial contamination more difficult than other meat processing, including the rapid rate of processing, keeping the carcass whole, and removing the viscera through a small abdominal opening, with the skin providing a complex surface which is capable of trapping bacteria after evisceration.104 Surface samples from equipment for Listeria spp. as well as for Campylobacter spp. (e.g. C. jejuni) show microbes surviving even after cleaning procedures.70,78

Occupational health legislation in SA places the primary responsibility of providing a healthy work environment for employees on employers.17Failing this, employers will suffer the consequence of an unmotivated workforce with high absenteeism rates. This will decrease production, efficiency, bottom-line profit and product quality which, in the case of microbial agents, is of public health importance.112,113 Similar to the UK, the SA Regulations for HBA set several legal obligations upon employers to:14,18

• conduct occupational health risk assessments to identify microbes, hazards and exposures;

• monitor exposure levels in identified areas for microbial agents, which include surface and air sampling;

• conduct medical surveillance (MS) on poultry processors where exposure occurs, or if a disease or likelihood thereof is related to the exposure;

• have the health of poultry processors appraised by an occupational health practitioner when processors are appointed, annually, and at exit due to resignation or retirement;

 as part of the appraisal, include suitable and relevant medical tests to conduct a proper health evaluation on poultry processors;

• report any infectious incident occurrence amongst processors, or death from a microbial agent, to the Department of Labour;

• keep proper records of assessments, monitoring and medical surveillance for a period of 40 years.

In addition, employers may:

• implement a hierarchy of control measures by instituting controls relative to:57,114-116

-  exposure prevention;

-  adequate exposure control;

-  restricted access to areas;

- separating processes or enclosing areas;

- appropriate work procedures such as proper handling, use, maintenance, cleaning and waste disposal;

- demarcation of microbial agents areas;

- displaying of appropriate biohazard signs.

• set procedures for adequate housekeeping, cleaning, and sanitation of all surfaces;

• restrict eating, drinking, smoking or application of cosmetics in microbial agents areas;

• provide proper supervision to ensure all procedures are followed;

• provide appropriate and approved personal protective equipment (PPE) for the activity;

• provide for handling of contaminated PPE;

• inform workers of the rules of reporting any exposure-related aspect, e.g. sick or dead birds or health complaints;

• provide workers with vaccinations and medical treatment;

 record processor absenteeism and reasons provided.

It is important that employers and poultry processors be informed and trained about microbial agents’ prevalence and impact.117-120 Training of processors should include information on:

 disease symptoms in birds and humans;

 the sources of exposure;

 the effects of exposures;

 procedures to be followed to minimise exposures;

 decontamination procedures;

 the use and maintenance of PPE, including gloves and respirators, and inform workers on their limitations;

• prompt seeking of medical care/attention in case of any exposure symptoms;

 procedure to remove contaminated PPE;

 importance of regular hand washing.

Lastly, employers should provide systems of reporting that are effective in establishing, implementing and maintaining systems. This will ensure that workers can seek advice and medical help from appointed primary caregivers, enabling management to fulfil their vision and mission, and enable them to be compliant to systems such as ISO 9001 and 22001.17, 121-124



The limitations of this review are that little research has been conducted in SA poultry abattoirs. Most studies relate only to larger poultry abattoirs, with no clear picture of exposure footprints at smaller abattoirs. Further research is required.



Poultry abattoir workers can be exposed, directly or indirectly to various microbial agents. Health conditions that can develop are complex and difficult to diagnose, posing a challenge to primary caregivers. Employers should assess the risk to health associated with microbial agents, measure levels of exposure, provide medical surveillance for workers, and train workers regarding symptoms and preventive measures.



The authors acknowledge the SAPA and the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) for partial financial contribution towards the study. Opinions expressed and conclusions are those of the authors and are not necessarily attributed to the TUT or SAPA.



The authors declare no conflicts of interest.



• Various pathogenic microorganisms are present in poultry abattoirs, with the HBA footprint varying between processing areas.

• Pathogenic microorganisms can cause severe health impacts and several diseases in workers.



1. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Food outlook biannual report on global food markets. Rome: United Nations; 2014 Contract No.: ISSN 1560-8182.

2. South African Poultry Association. Poultry industry overview. South African Poultry Association; 2013.

3. Department of Agriculture, Forrestry and Fisheries. Economic review of the South African agriculture 2016. Pretoria: Department of Agriculture, Forrestry and Fisheries; 2017.

4. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Hazardous biological agents Canada: Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety; 2015 [updated 2014]. Available from: http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/biol_hazards/ (accessed 25 May 2015).

5. Kyeremateng-Amoah E, Nowell J, Lutty A, Lees PS, Silbergeld EK. Laceration injuries and infection among workers in poultry processing and pork meat-packing industries. Am J Ind Med. 2014; 57(6):669-682.

6. International Labour Organization. Occupational Safety and Health Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization; 2015. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/public/English (accessed 25 Nov 2015).

7. Line speeds in meat and poultry plants [Internet]. American Meat Industry; 2014. Available from: http://www.meatami.com/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/93046 (accessed 19 Aug 2014).

8. Sewell A. Poultry processing line speeds: How fast is too fast? Food Safety News [Internet]. 2014 19 August 2014. Available from: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2014/02/poultry-processing-line-speeds-how-fast-is-too-fast/#.U_OsiaOS_QM (accessed 19 Aug 2014).

9. Wagenaar JA, Newell DG, Kalupahana RS, Mughini-Gras L. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control. Zoonoses-Infections affecting humans and animals: Springer; 2015. p. 159-177.

10. Balakrishnan S, Rao SB. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of occupational workers exposed to low levels of ionising radiation. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 1999; 442(1):37-42.

11. Borm PJ. Toxicity and occupational health hazards of coal fly ash (CFA).  A review of data and comparison to coal mine dust. Ann Occup Hyg. 1997; 41(6):659-676.

12. United States: Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Poultry industry workers poultry slaughter and evisceration Atlanta: Centres for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/poultry/slaughter.html (accessed 21 Sep 2015).

13. Health & Safety Executive. Control of substances hazardous to health: a guide to the regulations. London: Health & Safety Executive; 2002.

14. South Africa. Regulations for hazardous biological agents. In: Department of Labour, editor. Regulation Gazette 7233. Pretoria: Government printer; 2001. p. 67.

15. World Organization of Animal Health. List of notifiable diseases Geneve: World Organization of Animal Health 2015. Available from: http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/ (accessed 25 May 2015).

16. World Trade Organization. The WTO and the World Organization for Animal Health, Geneva: World Trade Organisation. Available from: https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/coher_e/wto_oie_e.htm (accessed 25 May 2015).

17. South  Africa. Occupational Health and Safety Act. In: Department of Labour, editor. 85. Pretoria: Government printer; 1993.

18. United Kingdom. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive; 1974.

19. Takala J, Hämäläinen P, Saarela KL, Yun LY, Manickam K, Jin TW, et al. Global estimates of the burden of injury and illness at work in 2012. J Occup Environ Med. 2014; 11(5):326-337.

20. Christou L. The global burden of bacterial and viral zoonotic infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011; 17:326-330.

21. Johnson ES, Zhou Y, Sall M, El Faramadwi M, Shah N, Christopher A, et al. Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: a model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans. J Occup Environ Med. 2007; 64(12):849-855.

22. Johnson S, Ndetan H. Non-cancer mortality in poultry slaughtering/processing plant workers belonging to a union pension fund. Environ Int. 2011; 37:322-327.

23. Mohamed O, Jinabhai CC, Taylor M, et al. The preparedness of emergency medical services against occupationally acquired communicable diseases in the prehospital environment in South Africa. Emerg Med J. 2007; 24(7):497-500.

24. National Institute for Communicable Diseases. Annual Report 2011-2012. Johannesburg: National Institute for Communicable Diseases; 2012.

25. International Labour Organization. About the ILO. Geneva: ILO; 2017. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang--en/index.htm (accessed 10 Nov 2017).

26. Health & Safety Executive. The health and safety executive: official site London, UK: Health and safety executive; 2015. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/ (accessed 23 Nov 2015).

27. Department of Labour. The Department of Labour website, Pretoria: Government printer; 2015. Available from: http://www.labour.gov.za (accessed 23 Nov 2015).

28. United Nations. The United Nations Geneva: United Nations; 2015. Available from: http://www.un.org/en (accessed 23 Nov 2015).

29. South African Poultry Association. The South African Poultry Association Randburg, South Africa: SAPA; 2015. Available from: www.sapoultry.co.za (accessed 23 Nov 2015).

30. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Cincinnatti, OH, USA: NIOSH; 2015. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ (accessed 23 Nov 2015).

31. Haas D, Posch J, Schmidt S, Wüst G, Sixl W, Feierl G, et al. A case study of airborne culturable microorganisms in a poultry slaughterhouse in Styria, Austria. Aerobiologia. 2005; 21(3-4):193-201.

32. Lenhart SW. Sources of respiratory insult in the poultry processing industry. Am J Ind Med. 1984; 6(2):89-96.

33. Lues JFR, Theron MM, Venter P, et al. Microbial composition in bioaerosols of a high-throughput chicken-slaughtering facility. Int J Poult Sci. 2007; 86(1):142-149.

34. Hagmar L, Schütz A, Hallberg T, Sjöholm A. Health effects of exposure to endotoxins and organic dust in poultry slaughterhouse workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990; 62(2):159-164.

35. Paba E, Chiominto A, Marcelloni AM, Proietto AR, Sisto R. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2014; 11(7):469-478.

36. Al. Ghamdi MS, El. Morsy F, Al. Mustafa ZH, Al. Ramadhan M, Hanif M. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry workers, patients and chicken in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Trop Med Int Health. 1999; 4(4):278-283.

37. Corry JEL, Atabay HI. Poultry as a source of Campylobacter and related organisms. J Appl Microbiol. 2001; 90(6):96-114.

38. Dickx V, Geens T, Deschuyffeleer T, Tyberghien L, Harkinezhad T, Beeckman DS, et al. Chlamydophila psittaci zoonotic risk assessment in a chicken and turkey slaughterhouse. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48(9):3244-3250.

39. Medeiros MA, Oliveira DC, Rodrigues DP, Freitas DR. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in chicken carcasses at retail in 15 Brazilian cities. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011; 30(6):555-560.

40. Barnham M, Neilson DJ. Group L beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection in meat handlers: Another streptococcal zoonosis? Epidemiol Infect. 1987; 99(02):257-264.

41. Mulders M, Haenen A, Geenen P, Vesseur P, Poldervaart E, Bosch T, et al. Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA in broiler flocks and risk factors for slaughterhouse personnel in the Netherlands. Epidemiol Infection. 2010; 138(05):743-755.

42. Price LB, Roess A, Graham JP, Baqar S, Vailes R, Sheikh KA, et al. Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni. J Occup Environ Med. 2007; 49(7):748-755.

43. Bohaychuk VM, Checkley SL, Gensler GE, Barrios PR. Microbiological baseline study of poultry slaughtered in provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada. Can Vet J. 2009; 50(2):173.

44. Craven S, Stern N, Bailey J, Cox N. Incidence of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens and their environment during production and processing. Avian Dis. 2000; 45(4):887-896.

45. Lindblad M, Lindmark H, Thisted Lambertz S, Lindqvist R. Microbiological baseline study of broiler chickens at Swedish slaughterhouses. J Food Prot. 2006; 69(12):2875-2882.

46. Lutgring KR, Linton RH, Zimmerman NJ, et al. Distribution and quantification of bioaerosols in poultry-slaughtering plants. J Food Protect. 1997; 60(7):804-810.

47. Nonnenmann MW, Bextine B, Dowd SE, Gilmore K, Levin JL. Culture independent characterization of bacteria and fungi in a poultry bioaerosol using pyrosequencing: a new approach. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2010; 7(12):693-639.

48. Whyte P, Collins J, McGill K, Monahan C, O’Mahony H. Distribution and prevalence of airborne microorganisms in three commercial poultry processing plants. J Food Protect. 2001; 64(3):388-391.

49. Shea KM. Antibiotic resistance: what is the impact of agricultural uses of antibiotics on children’s health? J Pediatr. 2003; 112(Supplement 1):253-258.

50. Union of Concerned Scientists. International estimates of antimicrobial abuse in livestock. Cambridge: Union of Concerned Scientists; 2001.

51. Price LB, Graham JP, Lackey LG, Roess A, Vailes R, Silbergeld E. Elevated risk of carrying gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli among U.S. poultry workers. Environ Health Perspect. 2007; 115(12):1738-1742.

52. Van den Boogaard AE, London N, Driessen C, Stobbering EE. Antibiotic resistance of faecal Escericia coli in poultry, poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001; 47(6):763-671.

53. Bester LA, Essack SY. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolates from commercial poultry suppliers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62(6):1298-1300.

54. Smith KE, Besser JM, Hedberg CW, Leano FT, Bender JB, Wicklund JH, et al. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in Minnesota, 1992-1998. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340(20):1525-1532.

55. Oguttu JW, Veary C, Picard J. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2008; 79(4):161-166.

56. Alonso-Hernando A, Capita R, Prieto M, Alonso-Calleja C. Comparison of antibiotic resistance patterns in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains pre-exposed and exposed to poultry decontaminants. Food Contr. 2009; 20(12):1108-1811.

57. MacMahon KL, Delaney LJ, Kullman G, Gibbins JD, Decker J, M.J. K. Protecting poultry workers from exposure to avian influenza viruses. Publ Health Rep. 2008; 123(3):316-322.

58. Pawar SD, Tandale BV, Raut CG, Parkhi SS, Barde TD, Gurav YK, et al. Avian Influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among poultry workers in Pune, India. PLOS ONE. 2012; 7(5).

59. Pal M, Tesfaye S, Pratibha D. Zoonoses occupationally acquired by abattoir workers. J Environ Occup Sci. 2013; 2(3):155-62.

60. Health & Safety Executive. Zoonoses. United Kingdom: Health & Safety Executive; 2014.

61. Gray GC, McCarthy T, Capuano AW, Setterquist SF, Alavanja MC, Lynch CF. Evidence for avian influenza A infections among Iowa’s agricultural workers. Influenza and other Respirable Viruses. 2008; 2(2):61-69.

62. Wang M, Fu CX, Zheng BJ. Antibodies against H5 and H9 avian influenza among poultry workers in China. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360(24):2583-4.

63. Organisation of Animal Health. World animal information database; 2009. Available from: http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=home (accessed 21 Feb 2015).

64. Christenson B, Ringner Å, Blücher C, Billaudelle H, Gundtoft KN, Eriksson G, et al. An outbreak of Campylobacter Enteritis among the staff of a poultry abattoir in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 1983; 15(2):167-172.

65. Cawthraw SA, Lind L, Kaijser B, Newell DG. Antibodies directed towards Campylobacter jejeni antigens, in sera from poultry abattoir workers. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000; 122(1):55-60.

66. Wilson IG. Airborne Campylobacter infection in a poultry worker: case report and review of the literature. Commun Dis Public Health. 2004; 7(4):349-353.

67. Health & Safety Executive. Poultry Industry: Main occupational ill-health risks. London, United Kingdom: Health & Safety Executive; 2014. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/food/slaughter.htm. (accessed 16 Mar 2015).

68. Lee MD, Newell DG. Campylobacter in poultry: filling an ecological niche. Avian Dis. 2006; 50(1):1-9.

69. De Perio MA, Niemeier RT, Levine SJ, Gruszynski K, Gibbins JD. Campylobacter infection in poultry-processing workers, Virginia, USA, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013; 19(2):286-288.

70. Peyrat M, Soumet C, Maris P, Sanders P. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from surfaces of poultry slaughterhouses after cleaning and disinfection procedures: analysis of a potential source of carcass contamination. Int J Food Microbiol.2008; 124(2):188-194.

71. Andrews BE, Major R, Palmer SR. Ornithosis in poultry workers. The Lancet. 1981; 21(1):632-634.

72. Lederer P, Müller R. Ornithosis-studies in correlation with an outbreak. Journal das Gesundheitswesen. 1999; 61(12):614-619.

73. Belchior E, Bradane G, Mercier AF, Fortin F, Ollivier R, Hubert B, editors. Investigation of human cases of psittacosis in two poultry plants, Parys de la Loire. Association for the Study of the Epidemiology of Animal Diseases; 2010; Paris.

74. Brooke CJ, Riley TV. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of an occupational pathogen. J Med Microbiol. 1999; 48(9):789-799.

75. Dale E, Brown C. Zoonotic diseases from poultry. Braz J Vet Pathol. 2013; 6(2):76-82.

76. Odwar JA, Kikuvi G, Kariuki JN, Kariuki S. A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meat sold in Nairobi, Kenya. BMC Research Notes. 2014; 7(628).

77. Heuvelink A, Zwartkruis-Nahuis J, Van den Biggelaar F, Van Leeuwen W, De Boer E. Isolation and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from slaughter pigs and poultry. Int J Food Microbiol. 1999; 52(1):67-75.

78. Gudbjörnsdóttir B, Suihko M-L, Gustavsson P, Thorkelsson G, Salo S, Sjöberg A-M, et al. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat, poultry and seafood plants in the Nordic countries. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004; 21(2):217-225.

79. Kubin M, Matušková E. Serological typing of mycobacteria for tracing possible sources of avian mycobacterial infections in man. Bull World Health Organ. 1968; 39(5):657.

80. Thegerström J. Mycobacterium avium infections in children Linköping, Sweden Linköping University; 2009.

81. Dhama K, Mahendran M, Tiwari R, Dayal Singh S, Kumar D, Singh S, et al. Tuberculosis in birds: Insights into the Mycobacterium Avium infections. Vet Med Int. 2011. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/712369 (accessed 13 Nov 2017).

82. Löfström C, Hintzmann A, Sørensen G, Baggesen DL. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in Danish poultry production. Vet Microbiol. 2015; 178(1-2):167-172.

83. Wong SS, Yuen KY. Avian influenza virus infections in humans. Chest. 2006; 129(1):156-168.

84. Bridges CB, Lim W, Hu-Primmer J, Sims L, Fukuda K, Mak K, et al. Risk of Influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997-1998. J Infect Dis. 2002; 185(8):1005-1010.

85. Fouchier RA, Schneeberger PM, Rozendaal FW, Broekman JM, Kemink SA, Munster V, et al., editors. Avian Influenza a Virus (H7n7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case af acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 2004; US. National Academy of Sciences; Pmc337057.

86. Huang R, Wang A-R, Liu Z-H, Liang W, Li X-X, Tang Y-J, et al. Seroprevalence of Avian influenza H9N2 among poultry workers in Shandong Province, China. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013; 32(10):1347-1351.

87. Arzey GG, Kirkland PD, Arzey KE, Frost M, Maywood P, Conaty S, et al. Influenza virus A (H10N7) in chickens and poultry abattoir workers, Australia. Emerg Infect Diseases. 2012; 18(5):814-816.

88. Guillet G, Borredon J, Duboseq M-F. Prevalence of warts on hands of poultry slaughterers, and poultry warts. Arch Derm. 1987; 123(6):718-719.

89. Mergler D, Vezina D, Beauvais A. Warts among workers in poultry slaughterhouses. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1982; 8(1):180-184.

90. Stehr-Green PA, Hewer P, Meekin GE, Judd LE. The aetiology and risk factors for warts among poultry processing workers. Int J Epidemiol. 1993; 22(2):294-298.

91. Taylor S. A prevalence study of virus warts on the hands in a poultry processing and packing station. Occup Med. 1980; 30(1):20-3.

92. Ngajilo D. Respiratory health effects in poultry workers. Current Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2014; 27(2):116-124.

93. Kirychuk SP, Dosman JA, Reynolds SJ, Wilson P, Senthilsenvan A, Feddes JJR. Total dust and endotoxin in poultry operations: comparison between cage and floor housing and respiratory effects in workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2006; 48(7):741-748.

94. Rimac D, Macan J, Varnai VM, Vucemilo M, K. M, Prester L. Exposure to poultry dust and health effects in poultry workers: impact of mould and mite allergen. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010; 83(1):9-19.

95. Rylander R, Carvalheiro MF. Airway inflammation amongst workers in poultry houses. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006; 79(6):487-490.

96. Sabino R, Fiasca VM, Carolino E, Verissimo C, Viegas C. Occupational expsure to Aspegillus by swine and poultry farm workers in Portugal. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2012; 75(22):1381-1391.

97. Bush RK, Portnoy JM, Saxon A, Terr A, Wood R. The medical effects of mold exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 117(2):326-33.

98. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some naturally occuring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. Geneva: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993. Report No. 56.

99. Viegas S, Veiga L, Malta-Vacas J, Sabino R, Figueredo P, Almeida A, et al. Occupational exposure to Aflatoxin in poultry production. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2012; 75(22-23):1330-1340.

100. Douwes J. 1-3-β-Dglucan and respiratory health: a review of scientific evidence. Indoor Air. 2005; 15(3):160-169.

101. Singh TS, Matuka O. Work-related infections – Part 1: Risks of exposure to infectious agents in the workplace. Occup Health Southern Afr. 2013; 19 (2):4-12 .

102. Jacob JP, Gaskin JM, Wilson HR, Mather FB. Avian diseases transmissible to humans. Cleve Clin J Med. 1997: 1-5.

103. Corrao CRN, Mazzotta A, Torre GL, Giusti MD. Biological risk and occupational health. Industrial health. 2012; 50(4):326-337.

104. Mead GC. Processing of Poultry. Elsevier Science Publishers; 1989.

105. Khosravi A, Chabavizadeh J, Shokri H, Tadjbakhsh H. Evaluation of the sensitization of poultry workers to Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladophialophora carrionii. Med Mycol. 2009; 19(2):104-109.

106. Viegas C, Malta-Vacas J, Sabino R, Viegas S, Verissimo C. Accessing indoor fungal contamination using conventional and molecular methods in Portuguese poultries. Environ Monit Assess. 2014; 186(3):1951-1959.

107. Pal M, Torres Rodríguez JM. Aspergillus Flavus as a cause of pulmonary aspergillosis in an occupational worker. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. 1990; 7(2):33-35.

108. Cohen SR. Dermatologic hazards in the poultry industry. J Occup Environ Med. 1974; 16(2):94-97.

109. Hayashi M, Saitoh M, Fujii N, Suzuki Y, Nishiyama K, Asano S, et al. Dermatoses among poultry slaughterhouse workers. Am J Ind Med. 1989; 15(5):601-605.

110. Marks JG, Rainey CM, Rainey MA, Andreozzi RJ. Dermatoses among poultry workers: chicken poison disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983; 9(6):852-857.

111. Quandt SA, Schultz AB, Feldman SR, Vallejos Q, Marin A, Carrillo L, et al. Dermatological ilnesses of immigrant poultry processing workers in North Carolina. ‎Arch Environ Occup Health. 2005; 60(3):165-169.

112. Ashraf AS, Naseem MS. Worker productivity, and occupational health and safety issues in selected industries. Conput Ind Eng. 2003; 45(4):563-572.

113. Lamm F, Massey C, Perry M. Is there a link between workplace health and safety and firm performance and productivity? NZJER. 2006; 32 (1):75-90.

114. DiNardi SR, editor. The occupational environment: its evaluation, control, and management. 2nd ed. Fairfax: American Institute of Industrial Hygienists; 2003.

115. Health & Safety Executive. Risk control: hierarchy of control. London, United Kingdom: Health & Safety Executive; 2014. Available from: http://www.HSE/Package/OHMM/Hierarchy%20of%20Control.htm (accessed 22 Oct2014).

116. Safework Southern Australia. The hierarchy of control measures Queensland: Safework Southern Australia; 2014. Available from: http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/EducationAndTraining/HazardManagement/Hierarchy.htm (accessed 22 Oct 2014).

117. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Occupational health and safety management system. Fairfax: American Industrial Hygiene Association; 1996.

118. Bahrndorff S, Rangstrup-Christensen L, Nordentoft S, Hald B. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection. Emerg Infect Diseases. 2013; 19(3):425-430.

119. Deschuyffelleer TPG, Tyberghien LFV, Dickx VLC, Greens T, Saelen JMMM, Vanrompay DCG, et al. Risk assessment and management of Chlamydia psittaci. Ann Occup Hyg. 2012; 56(3):340-349.

120. Haleem Khan AA, Mohan Karuppayil S. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2012; 19(4):405-426.

121. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9001: 2008 Quality management systems - requirements. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization; 2008. p. 27.

122. United Nations. International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations; 1976.

123. United States. Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1910 Subpart G (1970).

124. Van Stolk C, Staetsky L, Hassan E, Kim CW. Management of occupational safety and health. Belguim: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work; 2012.

Udacity Feedback
No tests loaded
Download this Article


Email address
Forgot password?